Kremlin quiet as Russia marks revolution's 100th anniversary

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The Russian Revolution was a period of political and social revolution across the territory of the Russian Empire which started with the abolishment of monarchy and concluded with the establishment pw3040b1200cu the Soviet Union by the bolsheviks and the end of the civil war. It began with the February Revolution which was focused around Petrograd now Saint Petersburgbest indian american dating sites capital of Russia at that time.

It took place in the context of heavy military setbacks during the First World Warwhich left much of the Russian Army in a state of mutiny. In the chaos, members of the DumaRussia's parliament, assumed control of the country, forming the Russian Provisional Government which was heavily dominated by the interests of large capitalists and the noble aristocracy.

The army leadership felt they did not have the means to suppress the revolution, resulting in the abdication of Emperor Nicholas II. Grassroots community assemblies called ' Soviets ', which were dominated by soldiers and the urban industrial working class, initially permitted the Provisional Government to rule, but insisted on a prerogative to influence the government and control various militias. A dating gif cartoon backgrounds chinese food of dual power ensued, during which the Provisional Government held state power while the national network of Soviets, led by socialistshad the allegiance of the lower classes and, increasingly, the left -leaning urban carbon dating meaning science experiment class.

During this chaotic dob there were frequent mutinies, protests and strikes. Many socialist political organizations were engaged in daily struggle and vied for influence within the Duma and the Soviets, central among which were the Bolsheviks "Ones of the Majority" led by Vladimir Lenin who campaigned for an immediate end to the war, land to the peasants, and bread to the workers.

When the Provisional Government chose to continue fighting the war with Germany, the Bolsheviks and other socialist factions were able to exploit virtually universal disdain towards the war effort as justification to advance the revolution further. The Bolsheviks turned workers' militias under their control into the Red Guards later the Red Army over which they exerted substantial control.

The situation climaxed with the October Revolutiona Bolshevik-led armed insurrection by workers and soldiers in Free christian dating sites no sign up that successfully overthrew the Provisional Government, pw3040b1200cu all its authority to the Soviets with the capital being relocated to Moscow shortly thereafter.

The Bolsheviks had secured a strong base of support within the Soviets and, as the now supreme governing party, established a federal government dedicated to reorganizing the former empire into the groups first socialist statepracticing Soviet democracy on a national and international scale.

To further secure the new state, the Cheka was established which functioned as a revolutionary security service that sought to weed out and punish those considered to be "enemies of the people" in campaigns consciously modeled on similar events during the French Revolution. Soon after, civil war erupted among the "Reds" Bolsheviksthe " Whites " counter-revolutionariesthe independence movements and other socialist factions opposed to the Bolsheviks. It continued for several years, during which the Bolsheviks defeated both the Whites dating all rival socialists and thereafter reconstituted themselves as the Communist Party.

While many notable historical events scrawny guy dating chubby girl in Moscow and Petrograd, there was also a visible movement in cities throughout the state, among national minorities throughout the empire and in the rural areas, where peasants took over and redistributed land. The Russian Revolution of was said to be a forms factor contributing to the cause of the Revolutions of The events of Bloody Sunday triggered nationwide protests and soldier mutinies.

A council of workers called the St. Naruto dating simulator other Soviet was created in this chaos. Petersburg Soviet were arrested, this laid the groundwork for the later Petrograd Soviet and other revolutionary movements during the lead up to The Revolution also led to the creation of a Duma parliamentthat would later form the Provisional Government following February While the nation was initially engaged in a wave of nationalism, increasing numbers of 100% free dating site for christian widows and poor conditions soon flipped the nation's opinion.

The Tsar attempted to remedy the situation by taking personal control of the army in This proved to be extremely disadvantageous for the Tsar, as he was now held personally responsible for Russia's continuing defeats and losses.

In addition, Tsarina Alexandraleft to rule in while the Tsar commanded at the front, was German born, leading to suspicion of collusion, only to be exacerbated by rumors relating to her relationship with the controversial mystic Grigori Rasputin. Rasputin's influence led to disastrous nyc appointments and corruption, resulting in a worsening of conditions within Russia. This led to general dissatisfaction with the Romanov family, and was a major factor contributing to the retaliation of the Russian Communists against the royal family.

After the entry of the Ottoman Empire on the side of the Central Powers in OctoberRussia was deprived of a major trade route through the Dardanelleswhich further contributed to the economic crisis, in which Russia became incapable of providing munitions to their army in the years leading to However, the problems were primarily administrative, not industrial, as Germany was able to produce great amounts of munitions whilst constantly fighting on two major battlefronts.

The conditions during the war resulted in a devastating loss of morale within the Russian army and the general population of Russia itself. This was particularly apparent in the cities, owing to a lack of food in response to the disruption of agriculture. Food scarcity had become a considerable problem in Russia, but the cause of this did not lie in any failure of the harvestswhich had not been significantly altered during wartime.

The indirect reason was that the government, in order to finance the war, printed millions of ruble notes, and byinflation had made prices increase up to four times what they had been in Farmers were consequently faced with a higher cost of living, but with little increase in income. As a result, they tended to hoard their grain and to revert to subsistence farming. Thus the cities were constantly short of food. At the same time, rising prices led to demands for higher wages in the factories, and in January and Februaryrevolutionary propagandain part aided by German funds, led to widespread strikes.

This resulted in a growing criticism of the government, including an increased participation of workers in revolutionary parties. Liberal parties too had an increased platform to voice their complaints, as the initial fervor of the war resulted in the Tsarist government creating a variety of political organizations.

In Julya Central War Industries Committee was established under the chairmanship of a prominent OctobristAlexander Guchkov —including ten workers' representatives. The Petrograd Mensheviks agreed to join despite the objections of their leaders abroad. All this activity gave renewed encouragement to political ambitions, and in Septembera combination of Octobrists and Kadets in the Duma demanded the forming of a responsible government.

All these factors had given rise to a sharp loss of confidence in the regime, even within the ruling class, growing throughout the war. Early inGuchkov discussed with senior army officers and members of the Central War Industries Committee about a possible coup to force the abdication of the Tsar.

In December, a small group of nobles assassinated Rasputinand in January the Tsar's uncle, Grand Duke Nicholaswas asked indirectly by Prince Lvov whether he would be prepared to take over the throne from his nephew, Tsar Nicholas II. None of these incidents were in themselves the immediate cause of the February Revolution, but they do help to explain why the monarchy survived only a few days after it had broken out.

Meanwhile, Socialist Revolutionary leaders in exile, many of them living in Switzerlandhad been the glum spectators of the collapse of international socialist solidarity. French and German Social Democrats had voted in favour of their respective governments' war efforts.

Georgi Plekhanov in Paris had adopted a violently anti-German stand, while Alexander Parvus supported the German war effort as the best means of ensuring a revolution in Russia. The Mensheviks largely maintained that Russia had the right to defend herself against Germany, although Julius Martov a prominent Mensheviknow on the left of his group, demanded an end to the war and a settlement on the basis of national self-determination, with no annexations or indemnities.

It was these views of Martov that predominated in a manifesto drawn up by Leon Trotsky at the time a Menshevik at a conference in Zimmerwaldattended by 35 Socialist leaders in September Inevitably Vladimir Lenin, supported by Zinoviev and Radekstrongly contested them. Their attitudes became known as the Zimmerwald Left.

Lenin rejected both the defence of Russia and the cry for peace. Since the autumn ofhe had insisted that "from the standpoint of the working class and of the labouring masses the lesser evil would be the defeat of the Tsarist Monarchy"; the war must be turned into a civil war of the proletarian soldiers against their own governments, and if a proletarian victory should emerge from this in Russia, then their duty would be to wage a revolutionary war for the liberation of the masses throughout Europe.

An elementary theory of property, believed by many peasants, was that land should belong to those who work on it. At the same time, peasant life and culture was changing constantly. Change was facilitated by the physical movement of growing numbers of peasant villagers who migrated to and from industrial and urban environments, but also by the introduction of city culture into the village through material goods, the press, and word of mouth. Workers also had good reasons for discontent: overcrowded housing with often deplorable sanitary conditions, long hours at work on the eve of the war, a hour workday six days a week was the average and many were working 11—12 hours a day byconstant risk of injury and death from poor safety and sanitary conditions, harsh discipline not only rules and fines, but foremen's fistsand inadequate wages made worse after by steep wartime increases in the cost of living.

At the same time, urban industrial life had its benefits, though these could be just as dangerous in terms of social and political stability as the hardships.

There were many encouragements to expect more from life. Acquiring new skills gave many workers a sense of self-respect and confidence, heightening expectations and desires. Living in cities, workers encountered material goods they had never seen in villages. Most importantly, workers living in cities were exposed to new ideas about the social and political order. The social causes of the Russian Revolution can be derived from centuries of oppression of the lower classes by the Tsarist regime and Nicholas's failures in World War I.

While rural agrarian peasants had been emancipated from serfdom inthey still resented paying redemption payments to the state, and demanded communal tender of the land they worked.

The problem was further compounded by the failure of Sergei Witte 's land reforms of the early 20th century. Increasing peasant disturbances and sometimes actual revolts occurred, with the goal of securing ownership of the land they worked. Russia consisted mainly of poor farming peasants and substantial inequality of land ownership, with 1.

The rapid industrialization of Russia also resulted in urban overcrowding and poor conditions for urban industrial workers as mentioned above.

Between andthe population of the capital, Saint Petersburg, swelled from 1, to 1,, with Moscow experiencing similar growth. This created a new 'proletariat' which, due to being crowded together in the cities, was much more likely to protest and go on strike than the peasantry had been in previous times. In one survey, it was found that an average of 16 people shared each apartment in Saint Petersburg, with six people per room.

There was also no running water, and piles of human waste were a threat to the health of the workers. The poor conditions only aggravated the situation, with the number of strikes and incidents of public disorder rapidly increasing in the years shortly before World War I. Because of late industrialization, Russia's workers were highly concentrated.

World War I added to the chaos. Conscription across Russia resulted in unwilling citizens being sent off to war. The vast demand for factory production of war supplies and workers resulted in many more labor riots and strikes.

Conscription stripped skilled workers from the cities, who had to be replaced with unskilled peasants. When famine began to hit due to the poor railway system, workers abandoned the cities in droves seeking food.

Finally, the soldiers themselves, who suffered from a lack of equipment and protection from the elements, began to turn against the Tsar. This was mainly because, as the war progressed, many of the officers who were loyal to the Tsar were killed, being replaced by discontented conscripts from the major cities who had little loyalty to the Tsar.

Many sections of the country had reason to be dissatisfied with the existing autocracy. Nicholas II was a deeply conservative ruler and maintained a strict authoritarian system. Individuals and society in general were expected to show self-restraint, devotion to community, deference to the social hierarchy and a sense of duty to the country.

Religious faith helped bind all of these tenets together as a source of comfort and reassurance in the face of difficult conditions and as a means of political authority exercised through the clergy.

Perhaps more than any other modern monarch, Nicholas II attached his fate and the future of his dynasty to the notion of the ruler as a saintly and infallible father to his people. This vision of the Romanov monarchy left him unaware of the state of his country. With a firm belief that his power to rule was granted by Divine RightNicholas assumed that the Russian people were devoted to him with unquestioning loyalty. This ironclad belief rendered Nicholas unwilling to allow the progressive reforms that might have alleviated the suffering of the Russian people.

Even after the Revolution spurred the Tsar to decree limited civil rights and democratic representation, he worked to limit even these liberties in order to preserve the ultimate authority of the crown.

Despite constant oppression, the desire of the people for democratic participation in government decisions was strong. Since the Age of EnlightenmentRussian intellectuals had promoted Enlightenment ideals such as the dignity of the individual and the rectitude of democratic representation.

These ideals were championed most vociferously by Russia's liberals, although populists, Marxists, and anarchists also claimed to support democratic reforms. A growing opposition movement had begun to challenge the Romanov monarchy openly well before the turmoil of World War I. Dissatisfaction with Russian autocracy culminated in the huge national upheaval that followed the Bloody Sunday massacre of Januaryin which hundreds of unarmed protesters were shot by the Tsar's troops.

Please log in to add to WorkSpaces. Not registered? Register now. Various material featuring events before, during and after the Russian Revolution. Reel 1. Crowds held back by soldiers as man with large beard walks by. Trotsky and colleagues on a balcony. Shots of the Kremlin. Street scenes in Russia. Women gathering crops in the fields. Russian Generals. Workers in the fields. Shots of peasant houses.

Russian Revolution, Civil War and USSR 1917-1991

Around 25, students are affected. Russia was in a state of near collapse as the First World War placed an intolerable strain on the already weak economy. On the Home Front famine loomed and women from working in the cities factories had had enough. As a result they could do little more than attempt to frighten the protesters. Many, angry at the poor state of the army, sided with them. Peaceful protests soon turned to riots and spread to other parts of the country. By 15 March Nicholas was finally persuaded to sign the order formally abdicating on behalf of himself and his young son Alexei.

What Ever Happened to the Russian Revolution?

A march by tens of thousands of women led to the downfall of the Russian empire. As part of our series commemorating the centenary of the Russian Revolution, Oliver Bennett looks at the radical architecture that emerged at the time. Subscribe Now Subscribe Now. Final Say. Long reads. Lib Dems. US Politics. Theresa May. Jeremy Corbyn. Robert Fisk. fdating russian revolution video clip A few thousand people marched through the center of Moscow, carrying large portraits of Lenin and waving red flags, moving toward the Kremlin and Red Square, off which they held a small rally. It was one of the few major public events commemorating the centenary, which the Kremlin indicated it wants to be low-key. But years on, Russia's current authorities made clear they consider it now peripheral for the country. Over the nights 6 and 7 Oct. Around 2 a. Tsar Nicholas II, whose palace it had been, had already been toppled by an uprising in February. He had been replaced by the so-called Provisional Government, a group of liberal ministers, who had spent the last few months desperately trying to restore order in the country exhausted by World War I.