Point & Counterpoint: Circumcision — Should You Snip?

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Fixes looks at solutions to social problems and why they work. Like every other girl of her era in her part of how to dating apps make money Ethiopia — and most girls in texas trucker dating site country — Bogaletch Gebre was circumcised.

In some regions girls are circumcised as infants, but in her zone it happened at puberty. It was aroundand she was about A man held her from behind, blindfolded her and stuffed a rag do online dating sites work for plus size guys her mouth, and with his legs held her legs open so she could not move. Gebre nearly bled to death.

She stayed at home for about two months, and after she healed, she was presented to her village, ready for marriage. Unicef estimates pdf that between 70 million and million girls and women globally are circumcised.

The practice is widespread throughout Africa, and in some countries of Asia and the Middle East. In Ethiopia it is done by Muslims, Christians and Jews. Domestic violence is tolerated, even expected. Some girls die from genital cutting, of infection or blood loss. But it can also lead to death later. It creates complications in childbirth, with higher risks for dating coach sforza family today and mother.

It leads to repeated urinary and bladder dating website for married couples hacked and to fistula. With infibulation, the most severe type of circumcision, the vagina must be cut open later for intercourse and childbirth.

Today, however, cutting has vanished from Kembata-Tembaro, as have bride abduction and widow inheritance. A study pdf done for the Innocenti Research Center, a research arm of Unicef, found that cutting had only 3 percent support in — down from 97 percent in This is a remarkable achievement.

There is nothing more difficult than persuading people to give up long-held cultural practices, especially those bound up in taboo subjects like sex. When Gebre was 6 or 7 she began sneaking off to school for an hour or two on her way to fetch water. She became the first girl in her district to go beyond 4 th grade. She went to Israel to study microbiology and then to the United States, where she did doctoral research on epidemiology.

But inwhen she was about 42 she does not know her actual age she returned to Kembata-Tembaro to try to help. KMG relies on dating guitar potentiometers explained variance calculator method called community conversations. It was developed by Dr.

But it is built on the ancient African practice of talking things out — community elders gather under a tree and discuss a problem again and again until they reach consensus.

Gebre was the first to apply community conversations to the issue of cutting. In the last decade, many countries in Africa have seen a marked drop in the practice of cutting.

This is thanks to organizations working all over the continent. Changing the law is a step, but only one step. In many places where cutting is outlawed, it is widely practiced in secret. It has to be discussed over and over again, in the African tradition.

Gebre did not start out using community conversations. KMG began by taking a survey of local practices, and then presented the results in meetings with community members, stressing how these practices harmed the community and made the village less prosperous.

KMG attacked the problem with the standard good strategies: it trained young women and men whom it then deployed to train others in their communities, holding workshops with different groups like students, village leaders, uncut girls and the women who worked as circumcisers. The meetings were popular and demand was high. But when U. KMG asked communities to choose people to be trained as facilitators, then trained hundreds of them. A pair of facilitators — one man, one woman — would lead a group of 50 people, which is small enough that everyone can take part in discussion.

Each week, on a Saturday or Sunday, the group would meet for two to four hours to talk. The groups were both uniform — all girls, all elders, all traditional birth attendants — and mixed. Communities wanted to know how to keep it from spreading. The facilitators presented basic facts about AIDS, and the 50 people began to talk about how to keep the community safe. Condom use led into how women could negotiate condom use, which led into power relationships, which led into gender rights, and then to practices like cutting, and its dangers.

Where do these practices come from? The Bible and Koran, people said — but no one could point to where. This was news. Outsiders had been telling the people of Kembata-Tembaro for centuries not to cut their daughters.

But Gebre had credibility. KMG also built trust by bringing practical help. The group offered health services, planted trees and built schools.

A village needed a bridge, and had organized people to build it. But there was no money for materials. It also helped that KMG was not judgmental. Her role as a mother was to prepare a proper girl for marriage, to prepare a daughter to be a good wife. Otherwise nobody would marry her. Eventually, 85 percent of people in Kembata-Tembaro joined one or more community conversations, and participants were encouraged to discuss what they had heard with family and friends over coffee or during long walks to fetch water.

As the conversations were winding down in a village, each group chose 10 members for a committee to continue the work. Not surprisingly, young girls were the most eager to abandon cutting. Learn from me. It was the first of many such weddings. Instead of the seasonal events celebrating the marriageability of cut girls, Kembata-Tembaro began substituting events celebrating uncut girls. It was held in a soccer stadium andpeople attended.

The Unicef report describes how resolutions abandoning cutting and other harmful practices were first passed in the community conversation groups, and then moved up — winning approval at village assemblies and then endorsement by subdistrict and district governments, which also began to enforce the prohibitions.

This is the reverse of the usual top-down strategies, and it worked. Unicef found that by circumcision had been almost completely abandoned. Government enforcement helped — but probably more important was that social stigma against uncut girls had vanished. In the Wolaita zone, conversations did not lead to the end of cutting. The meetings were too large for people to be more than spectators, and were run by government officials, not villagers.

Community conversations are now spreading through Ethiopia in areas of all religions. Gebre said KMG was reaching six million people in southern Ethiopia. The conversations range more broadly than health and gender violence. Inthe Ethiopian government made community conversations a major piece of its H. Ethiopia, which was hard hit by AIDS, had the biggest decline pdf, p 11 in the rate of new infections of any country in Africa — over a 90 percent drop between and Unaids considers community conversations a keystone of that achievement.

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Fixes looks at solutions to social problems and why they work. Like every other girl of her era in her part of southern Ethiopia — and most girls in the country — Bogaletch Dating sites with green backgrounds kashmiri dum was circumcised. In some regions girls are circumcised as infants, but in her zone it happened at puberty. It was aroundand she was about A man held her from behind, blindfolded her and stuffed a rag in her mouth, and with his legs held her legs open so she could not move. Gebre nearly bled to death. She stayed at home for about two months, and after she healed, she was presented to her village, ready for marriage. Unicef estimates pdf that between 70 million and million girls and women globally are circumcised. The practice is widespread throughout Africa, and in some countries of Asia and the Middle East.

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To receive news and publication updates for Obstetrics and Gynecology International, enter your email address in the box below. Gele et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License , which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. Against this background, this paper explores the attitudes of Somalis living in Hargeisa and Galkayo districts to the practice of FC. A purposive sampling of 24 Somalis, including activists and practitioners, men and women, was conducted in Somalia. The findings of this qualitative study indicate that there is a strong resistance towards the abandonment of the practice in Somalia.

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Free whats, dating, and hows about newborn andrade dating charlotte flair wwe bikini. When boys are born, they have a piece of skin that covers the end of the penis, called the foreskin. Circumcision is the surgical removal of the foreskin to expose the tip of sites penis. A newborn must be online and healthy to be circumcised. If a parent decides to have her baby circumcised, the procedure is usually performed in the baby's first few days of life assuming the procedure will not be taking place during a religious ceremony. To perform the procedure, the doctor places the baby on a special table and cleans the baby's penis and foreskin. A special clamp is attached to the penis, and the foreskin is removed. Finally, ointment and gauze or a plastic ring are placed over the cut to protect it from rubbing against the diaper. The procedure is done quickly. The baby may cry during the procedure and for a short while afterward. Local anesthesia can greatly reduce your baby's discomfort. dating profile examples for women talk circumcision As far as urinary tract infection prevention, we live in the age of antibiotics. In medical school, all the penis drawings are uncircumcised. They tell the parents to pull it back, to clean it, to look at it — and all this is totally untrue. When a baby is born, the foreskin is attached, and this is normal. The penis head is sensitive and was meant to be an internal organ — the foreskin protects it. Over time, the foreskin will retract on its own. I spend half of my time dealing with parents whose baby boys had their penises forcefully retracted, causing pain, trauma, and scarring.