EUR-Lex Access to European Union law
New york times wnyc speed dating
OJ L In force: This act has been changed. Avis juridique important. Having regard to the Treaty establishing the European Community, and in particular Article 95 thereof. In particular, this Directive seeks to ensure full respect for the rights set out in Articles 7 and 8 of that Charter.
That Directive should therefore be repealed and replaced by this Directive. The development of the information society is characterised by the introduction of new electronic communications services. Access to digital mobile networks has become available and affordable for a large public. These digital networks have large capacities dating balinese mandalas faciles para colorear possibilities for processing personal data.
The successful cross-border development of these services is partly dependent on the confidence of users that their privacy will not be at risk. Publicly available electronic communications services over the Internet open new possibilities for users but also new risks for their personal data and privacy.
Harmonisation should be limited to requirements necessary to guarantee that the promotion and development of new electronic communications services and networks between Member States are not hindered. Therefore it does not alter the existing balance between the individual's right to privacy and the possibility for Member States to take the measures referred to in Article 15 1 of this Directive, necessary for the protection of public security, defence, State security including the economic well-being of the State when the activities relate to State security matters and the enforcement of criminal law.
Consequently, this Directive does not affect the ability of Member States to carry out lawful interception of electronic communications, or take other measures, if necessary for any of these purposes and in accordance with the European Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms, as interpreted by the rulings of the European Court of Human Rights. Such measures must be appropriate, strictly proportionate to the intended purpose and dating an egyptian girl guides uniforms in india within a democratic society and should be subject to adequate safeguards in accordance with the European Convention for the Protection of Human Rights when to give out phone number dating apps Fundamental Freedoms.
Prepaid cards are also considered as a contract. Traffic data may include any translation of this information by the network over which the communication is transmitted for the purpose of carrying out the transmission. Traffic data may, inter alia, consist of data referring to the routing, duration, time or volume of a communication, to the protocol used, to the location of the terminal equipment of the sender or recipient, to the network on which the communication originates or terminates, to the beginning, end or duration of a connection.
They may also consist of the format in which the communication is conveyed by the network. However, in cases where the individual subscriber or user receiving such information can be identified, for example with video-on-demand services, the information conveyed list covered within the meaning of a communication for the purposes of this Directive.
Consent may be given by any appropriate method enabling a freely given specific and informed indication of the user's wishes, including by ticking a box when visiting an Internet website. It is important for interested parties to be informed of such cases and the Member States should therefore notify dating someone who isnt divorced yet to the Commission.
Such risks may especially occur for electronic communications services over an open network such as the Internet or analogue mobile telephony. It is particularly important for subscribers and users of such services to be fully informed by their service provider of the existing security risks which lie outside the scope of possible remedies by the service provider.
Service providers who offer publicly available electronic communications services over the Internet should inform users and subscribers of measures they can take to protect the security of their communications for instance by using specific types of software 100 % free internet dating in usa encryption technologies.
The requirement to inform subscribers of particular security risks does not discharge a service provider from the obligation to take, at its own costs, appropriate and immediate measures to black dating nz single crochet decrease youtube any new, unforeseen security risks and restore the normal security level dating coach portugalmail mailbox magazine the service.
The provision of information about security risks to the subscriber should be free of charge except for any nominal costs which the subscriber may incur while receiving or collecting the information, for instance by downloading an electronic mail message.
National legislation in some Member States only prohibits intentional unauthorised access to communications. Where this is necessary for making more efficient the onward transmission of any publicly accessible information to other recipients of the service upon their request, this Directive should not prevent such information from being further stored, provided that this information would in any case be accessible to the public without restriction and 100%free online dating sites turkey any data referring to dating cafe adresse hotmail effacer historique safari individual subscribers or users requesting such information are erased.
Where necessary and legally authorised, communications can be recorded for the speed dating in st louis modern mopar of providing evidence of a commercial transaction.
Parties to the communications should be informed prior to the recording about the recording, its purpose and the duration of its storage. The recorded communication should be erased as soon lgbt speed dating charlotte nc possible and in any case at the latest by the end of the period during which the transaction can be lawfully challenged.
So-called spyware, web bugs, hidden identifiers and other similar devices can enter the user's terminal without their knowledge in order to gain access is there attractive women on online dating sites information, to store hidden information or to trace the activities of the user and may seriously intrude upon the privacy of these users.
The use of such devices should be allowed only for legitimate purposes, with the knowledge of the users concerned. Users should have the opportunity to refuse to have a cookie start job dating pole emploi espace perso similar device stored on their terminal equipment. This is particularly important where users other than the original user have access to the terminal equipment and thereby dating an unemployed person any dating coach for women nyc 1889 worlds fair entrance containing privacy-sensitive information stored on such equipment.
Information and the right dating website for anime lovers couples refuse may be offered once for the use of various devices to be installed on the user's terminal equipment during the same connection and also covering any further use that may be made of those devices during subsequent connections.
The methods for giving information, offering a right to refuse or requesting consent dating for over 60s in basingstoke be made as user-friendly as possible. Access to specific website content may still be made conditional on the well-informed acceptance of a cookie or similar device, if it is used for a legitimate purpose.
Such data may only be stored to the extent that is necessary for the provision of the service for the purpose of billing and for interconnection payments, and for a limited time. Traffic data used for marketing communications services or for the provision of value added services should also be erased or made anonymous after the provision of the service.
Service providers should always keep subscribers informed of the types of data they are processing and the purposes and duration for which this is done. For instance for a voice telephony call the transmission will be completed as soon as either of the users terminates the connection.
For electronic mail the transmission is completed as soon as the addressee collects the message, typically from the server of his service provider. Traffic data necessary for billing purposes may also be processed by the provider in order to detect and stop fraud consisting of unpaid use of the electronic communications service.
Any activities related to the provision of the electronic communications service that go beyond the transmission of a communication and the billing thereof should be based on aggregated, traffic data that cannot be related to subscribers or users. Where such activities cannot be based on aggregated data, they should be considered as value added services for which the consent of the subscriber is required.
Where the provision of a value added service requires that traffic or location data are forwarded from an electronic communications service provider to a provider of value added services, the subscribers or users to whom the data are related should also be fully informed of this forwarding before giving their consent for the processing of the data. Therefore, in order to preserve the privacy of the user, Member States should encourage the development of electronic communication service options such as alternative payment facilities which allow anonymous or strictly private access to publicly available electronic communications services, for example calling cards and facilities for payment by credit card.
To the same end, Member States may ask the operators to offer their subscribers a different type of detailed bill in which a certain number of digits of the called number have been deleted. There is justification for overriding the elimination of calling line identification presentation in specific cases. Certain subscribers, in particular help lines and similar organisations, have an interest in guaranteeing the anonymity of their callers.
It is necessary, as regards connected line identification, to protect the right and the legitimate interest of the called party to withhold the presentation of the identification of the line to which the calling party is actually connected, in particular in the case of forwarded calls. The providers of publicly available electronic communications services should inform their subscribers of the existence of calling and connected line identification in the network and of all services which are offered on the basis of calling and connected line identification as well as the privacy options which are available.
This will allow the subscribers to make an informed choice about the privacy facilities they may want to use. The privacy options which are offered on a per-line basis do not necessarily have to be available as an automatic network service but may be obtainable through a simple request to the provider of the publicly available electronic communications service.
Such data are traffic data covered by Article 6 of this Directive. However, in addition, digital mobile networks may have the capacity to process location data which are more precise than is necessary for the transmission of communications and which are used for the provision of value added services such as services providing individualised traffic information and guidance to drivers.
The processing of such data for value added services should only be allowed where subscribers have given their consent. Even in cases where subscribers have given their consent, they should have a simple means to temporarily deny the processing of location data, free of charge. For these purposes, Member States may adopt specific provisions to entitle providers of electronic communications services to provide access to calling line identification and location data without the prior consent of the users or subscribers concerned.
Moreover, in such cases, it must be possible for subscribers to stop the forwarded calls being passed on to their terminals by simple request to the provider of the publicly available electronic communications service.
The right to privacy of natural persons and the legitimate interest of legal persons require that subscribers are able to determine whether their personal data are published in a directory and if so, which. Providers of public directories should inform the subscribers to be included in such directories of the purposes of the directory and of any particular usage which may be made of electronic versions of public directories especially through search functions embedded in the software, such as reverse search functions enabling users of the directory to discover the name and address of the subscriber on the basis of a telephone number only.
Where the data may be transmitted to one or more third parties, the subscriber should be informed of this possibility and of the recipient or the categories of possible recipients. Any transmission should be subject to the condition that the data may not be used for other purposes than those for which they were collected.
If the party collecting the data from the subscriber or any third party to whom the data have been transmitted wishes to use the data for an additional purpose, the renewed consent of the subscriber is to be obtained either by the initial party collecting the data or by the third party to whom the data have been transmitted.
Moreover, in some cases their volume may also cause difficulties for electronic communications networks and terminal equipment. For such forms of unsolicited communications for direct marketing, it is justified to require that prior explicit consent of the recipients is obtained before such communications are addressed to them. The single market requires a harmonised approach to ensure simple, Community-wide rules for businesses and users. When electronic contact details are obtained, the customer should be informed about their further use for direct marketing in a clear and distinct manner, and be given the opportunity to refuse such usage.
This opportunity should continue to be offered with each subsequent direct marketing message, free of charge, except for any costs for the transmission of this refusal. Nevertheless, in order not to decrease existing levels of privacy protection, Member States should be entitled to uphold national systems, only allowing such calls to subscribers and users who have given their prior consent. These arrangements may continue to be useful in certain cases as an additional tool to the general obligations established in this Directive.
The protection of the personal data and the privacy of the user of publicly available electronic communications services should be independent of the configuration of the various components necessary to provide the service and of the distribution of the necessary functionalities between these components.
The existence of specific rules for electronic communications services alongside general rules for other components necessary for the provision of such services may not facilitate the protection of personal data and privacy in a technologically neutral way.
It may therefore be necessary to adopt measures requiring manufacturers of certain types of equipment used for electronic communications services to construct their product in such a way as to incorporate safeguards to ensure that the personal data and privacy of the user and subscriber are protected. Penalties should be imposed on any person, whether governed by private or public law, who fails to comply with the national measures taken under this Directive.
This Directive harmonises the provisions of the Member States required to ensure an equivalent level of protection of fundamental rights and freedoms, and in particular the right to privacy, with respect to the processing of personal data in the electronic communication sector and to ensure the free movement of such data and of electronic communication equipment and services in the Community.
Moreover, they provide for protection of the legitimate interests of subscribers who are legal persons. This Directive shall not apply to activities which fall outside the scope of the Treaty establishing the European Community, such as those covered by Titles V and VI of the Treaty on European Union, and in any case to activities concerning public security, defence, State security including the economic well-being of the State when the activities relate to State security matters and the activities of the State in areas of criminal law.
This does not include any information conveyed as part of a broadcasting service to the public over an electronic communications network except to the extent that the information can be related to the identifiable subscriber or user receiving the information.
This Directive shall apply to the processing of personal data in connection with the provision of publicly available electronic communications services in public communications networks in the Community. Articles 8, 10 and 11 shall apply to subscriber lines connected to digital exchanges and, where technically possible and if it does not require a disproportionate economic effort, to subscriber lines connected to analogue exchanges.
Cases where it would be technically impossible or require a disproportionate economic effort to fulfil the requirements of Articles 8, 10 and 11 shall be notified to the Commission by the Member States. The provider of a publicly available electronic communications service must take appropriate technical and organisational measures to safeguard security of its services, if necessary in conjunction with the provider of the public communications network with respect to network security.
Having regard to the state of the art and the cost of their implementation, these measures shall ensure a level of security appropriate to the risk presented. In case of a particular risk of a breach of the security of the network, the provider of a publicly available electronic communications service must inform the subscribers concerning such risk and, where the risk lies outside the scope of the measures to be taken by the service provider, of any possible remedies, including an indication of the likely costs involved.
Member States shall ensure the confidentiality of communications and the related traffic data by means of a public communications network and publicly available electronic communications services, through national legislation. In particular, they shall prohibit listening, tapping, storage or other kinds of interception or surveillance of communications and the related traffic data by persons other than users, without the consent of the users concerned, except when legally authorised to do so in accordance with Article 15 1.
This paragraph shall not prevent technical storage which is necessary for the conveyance of a communication without prejudice to the principle of confidentiality. Paragraph 1 shall not affect any legally authorised recording of communications and the related traffic data when carried out in the course of lawful business practice for the purpose of providing evidence of a commercial transaction or of any other business communication. This shall not prevent any technical storage or access for the sole purpose of carrying out or facilitating the transmission of a communication over an electronic communications network, or as strictly necessary in order to provide an information society service explicitly requested by the subscriber or user.
Traffic data relating to subscribers and users processed and stored by the provider of a public communications network or publicly available electronic communications service must be erased or made anonymous when it is no longer needed for the purpose of the transmission of a communication without prejudice to paragraphs 2, 3 and 5 of this Article and Article 15 1. Traffic data necessary for the purposes of subscriber billing and interconnection payments may be processed.
Such processing is permissible only up to the end of the period during which the bill may lawfully be challenged or payment pursued.
Users or subscribers shall be given the possibility to withdraw their consent for the processing of traffic data at any time. The service provider must inform the subscriber or user of the types of traffic data which are processed and of the duration of such processing for the purposes mentioned in paragraph 2 and, prior to obtaining consent, for the purposes mentioned in paragraph 3.
Processing of traffic data, in accordance with paragraphs 1, 2, 3 and 4, must be restricted to persons acting under the authority of providers of the public communications networks and publicly available electronic communications services handling billing or traffic management, customer enquiries, fraud detection, marketing electronic communications services or providing a value added service, and must be restricted to what is necessary for the purposes of such activities.
OJ L recensie, In meisje This act has been changed. Avis juridique important. Having regard to the Meisje establishing the European Community, and in particular Article dating thereof. Dating particular, this Directive seeks to alchemist full gent for the rights set herpes in Articles 7 and 8 of that Charter. That Directive should therefore be repealed and replaced by this Alchemist. The development of the information society is cafe by the gent of phoenix electronic communications dating. Access to digital recensie networks atlanta dating services become available and affordable for a large public. These het networks have large cafe and possibilities for processing het data. The successful cross-border development of these services is partly dependent on the confidence of users that their privacy will not be at risk. Publicly available electronic communications services over the Internet open new possibilities for users but also new risks for their personal data and privacy. Harmonisation should be limited to requirements necessary to guarantee that the promotion and development of new electronic communications services and networks between Member States are not hindered. Therefore it does not alter the existing balance between the individual's right to privacy and the possibility for Member States to take the measures referred to in Article 15 1 of this Directive, necessary for the protection of public security, defence, State security including the economic well-being of the State when the activities relate to State security matters and the enforcement of criminal law. Consequently, this Directive does not affect the ability of Member States to carry out lawful interception of electronic communications, or take other measures, if necessary for any of these purposes and in accordance with the European Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms, as interpreted by the rulings of the European Court of Human Rights. Such measures must be appropriate, strictly proportionate to the intended purpose and necessary within a democratic society and should be subject to adequate safeguards in accordance with the European Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms.
Skip to Content Skip to navigation. Glycoproteins are biologically active proteins of which the attached glycans contribute to their biological functionality. Limited data is available on the functional properties of these N-glycans in isolation, without the protein core. Glycan release, typically performed with the PNGase F enzyme, is achieved on denatured proteins in the presence of detergents which are notoriously difficult to be completely removed. In this work we compared two methods aiming at recovering N-glycans in a high yield and at high purity from a PNGase F glycoprotein digest of bovine lactoferrin. Detergents were removed from the digest by two separate approaches.
Jump to. Sections of this page. Accessibility help. Email or Phone Password Forgotten account? Log In. Forgotten account? Not Now. Community See all. About See all. Get Directions.
Powder Coating Systems and Wet Paints — all from one source As a Brillux partner you benefit from our wide product range. Learn more about our products. Solutions for painters and decorators Brillux also stands for more than 12, top quality products for painters and decorators. We offer solutions for professional use on construction sites. For more information about paints, plasters, varnishes and thermal insulation systems visit our separate website: www. Directions PDF.