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New media are forms of media that are native to computers, computational and dtf on computers for redistribution. Some examples be2 dating nz singletons restaurant new media are telephonescomputersvirtual worldssingle mediawebsite gameshuman-computer interfacecomputer animation and interactive computer installations.
New media are often contrasted to " old media ", such as television, video, and print media, although scholars in communication and media studies have criticised anime dating games for girls only no boys distinctions based on oldness and novelty. Wikipediaan online encyclopedia, is a good example of New Media, combining Internet accessible digital text, images and video with web-links, creative participation of contributors, interactive feedback of users and formation of a participant community of editors and donors for the benefit of non-community readers.
Facebook is another type of New Media, belonging to the category of social media model, in which most users are also participants. Another type of New Media is Twitter which also belongs to the social media category, through which users interact with one another and make announcements to find the public receive. Both Facebook and Twitter have risen in usage in recent years and have become an online resource for acquiring information.
In the s, connections between computing and radical art began to grow stronger. Examples was not until the s that Alan Kay and his co-workers at Xerox PARC began to give the computability of a personal computer to the individual, rather than have a big organization be in charge of this. Although causally unrelated, conceptually it makes sense that the Cold War and the design of the Web dating start genocide convention parties r us halifax place at exactly the same time.
Writers and philosophers such as Marshall McLuhan were instrumental in the development of media theory during this period. His dating famous declaration in Understanding Media: The Extensions of Man that " the medium is the message " drew attention to the too often ignored influence media and technology themselves, rather than their "content," have on humans' experience of the world and on society broadly.
Until the s media relied primarily upon print and analog broadcast models, such as those of television and radio. The last twenty-five years have seen the rapid transformation into media which are predicated upon the use of digital technologies, such as the Internet and video games. However, these examples are only a small representation of new media. The use of digital computers has transformed the remaining 'old' media, as suggested by the advent of digital television and online publications.
Even traditional media forms such as the printing press have been transformed through the application of technologies such as image manipulation software definition Adobe Photoshop and desktop publishing tools. Andrew L. Shapiro argues that the "emergence of new, digital technologies signals a potentially radical shift of who is in control of information, experience and resources" Shapiro cited in Croteau and Hoynes Russell Neuman suggests that whilst the "new media" have technical capabilities to pull in one direction, economic and social forces pull back best free dating sites for hooking up surround the opposite direction.
According to Neuman, "We are witnessing the evolution of a universal interconnected network of audio, video, and electronic text communications that will blur the distinction paradigm interpersonal and mass communication girls between public and private communication" Neuman cited in Croteau and Christian dating when to marry Neuman argues that new media will:.
Dating violence webquest template zunal webquest answers, it has christian quote about dating the contention of scholars such as Douglas Kellner and James Bohman that new media, and particularly the Internet, provide the potential for a democratic postmodern public sphere, in which citizens can participate in well informed, non-hierarchical debate pertaining to their social structures.
Contradicting these positive appraisals of the potential social impacts of new media are scholars such as Ed Herman and Robert McChesney who have suggested that the transition to new media has seen a handful of powerful transnational telecommunications corporations meet singles free online dating sites achieve a level of global influence which was hitherto unimaginable.
Scholars, such as Lister et al. Based on the argument that people wikipedia a limited amount of time to spend on the consumption of different media, Displacement theory argue that the viewership or readership of one particular outlet leads to early stages of dating tips reduction in the amount of time spent by the individual innovation another.
The introduction of New Media, such as the internet, therefore reduces the amount of time individuals would spend on existing "Old" Media, which could ultimately lead to the end of such traditional media.
The rise of new media has increased communication between people all over the world and the Internet. It has allowed people to express themselves through blogs, websites, videos, pictures, and other user-generated media.
Flew stated that, "as a result of the evolution of new media technologies, globalization occurs. New media "radically break the connection between physical place and social place, making physical location much less significant for our social relationships" Croteau and Hoynes However, the changes in the new media environment create a series of tensions in the concept of "public sphere".
This trend of the globalized public sphere is not only as a geographical expansion form a nation to worldwide, but also changes the relationship between the public, the media and state Volkmer, For Sherry Turkle "making the computer into a second self, finding a soul in the machine, can substitute for human relationships" Holmes New media has the ability to connect like-minded others worldwide.
While commentators such as Castells  espouse a "soft determinism"  whereby they contend that "Technology does not determine society. Nor does society script the course of technological change, since many factors, including individual inventiveness and entrpreneurialism, intervene in the process of scientific discovery, technical innovation and social applications, so the final outcome depends on a complex pattern of interaction.
Indeed the dilemma of technological determinism is probably a false problem, since technology is society and society cannot be understood without its technological tools. Manovich  and Castells  have argued that whereas mass media "corresponded to the logic of industrial mass society, which values conformity over individuality," Manovich new media follows the logic of the postindustrial or globalized society whereby "every citizen can construct her own custom lifestyle and select her ideology from a large number of choices.
Rather than pushing the same objects to a mass audience, marketing now tries to target each individual separately. Social movement media has a rich and storied history see Agitprop that has changed at a rapid rate since New Media became widely used.
The WTO protests used media to organize the original action, communicate with and educate participants, and was used as an alternative media source. Of course, some are also skeptical of the role of New Media in Social Movements. Many scholars point out unequal access to new media as a hindrance to broad-based movements, sometimes even oppressing some within a movement. New Media has also found a use with less radical social movements such as the Free Hugs Campaign.
Using websites, blogs, and online videos to demonstrate the effectiveness of the movement itself. Along with this example the use of high volume blogs has allowed numerous views and practices to be more widespread and gain more public attention. Another example is the ongoing Free Tibet Campaignwhich has been seen on numerous websites as well as having a slight tie-in with the band Gorillaz in their Gorillaz Bitez clip featuring the lead singer 2D sitting with protesters at a Free Tibet protest.
Another social change seen coming from New Media is trends in fashion and the emergence of subcultures such as Text SpeakCyberpunkand various others. Following trends in fashion and Text SpeakNew Media also makes way for "trendy" social change.
The Ice Bucket Challenge is a recent example of this. All in the name of raising money for ALS the lethal neurodegenerative disorder also known as Lou Gehrig's diseaseparticipants are nominated by friends via FacebookTwitter and ownmirror to dump a bucket of ice water on themselves, or donate to the ALS Foundation. This became a huge trend through Facebook's tagging tool, allowing nominees to be tagged in the post.
The videos appeared on more people's feeds, and the trend spread fast. This trend raised over million dollars for the cause and increased donations by 3, percent.
New Media has also recently become of interest to the global espionage community as it is easily accessible electronically in database format and can therefore be quickly retrieved and reverse engineered by national governments. Particularly of interest to the espionage community are Facebook and Twittertwo sites where individuals freely divulge personal information that can then be sifted through and archived for the automatic creation of dossiers on both people of interest and the average citizen.
New media also serves as an important tool for both institutions and nations to promote their interest and values The contents of such promotion may vary according to different purposes.
Some communities consider it an approach of "peaceful evolution" that may erode their own nation's system of values and eventually compromise national security. Interactivity has become a term for a number of new media use options evolving from the rapid dissemination of Internet access points, the digitalization of media, and media convergence.
InRice defined new media as communication technologies that enable or facilitate user-to-user interactivity and interactivity between user and information. Any individual with the appropriate technology can now produce his or her online media and include images, text, and sound about whatever he or she chooses. In "What is new media? He saw Interpersonal media as "one to one", Mass media as "one to many", and finally New Media as Individuation Media or "many to many".
When we think of interactivity and its meaning, we assume that it is only prominent in the conversational dynamics of individuals who are face-to-face.
This restriction of opinion does not allow us to see its existence in mediated communication forums. Interactivity is present in some programming work, such as video games. It's also viable in the operation of traditional media. In the mid s, filmmakers started using inexpensive digital cameras to create films.
It was also the time when moving image technology had developed, which was able to be viewed on computer desktops in full motion. This development of new media technology was a new method for artists to share their work and interact with the big world. Other settings of interactivity include radio and television talk shows, letters to the editor, listener participation in such programs, and computer and technological programming. Interactivity can be considered a central concept in understanding new media, but different media forms possess, or enable  different degrees of interactivity,  and some forms of digitized and converged media are not in fact interactive at all.
Tony Feldman  considers digital satellite television as an example of a new media technology that uses digital compression to dramatically increase the number of television channels that can be delivered, and which changes the nature of what can be offered through the service, but does not transform the experience of television from the user's point of view, and thus lacks a more fully interactive dimension. It remains the case that interactivity is not an inherent characteristic of all new media technologies, unlike digitization and convergence.
Terry Flew argues that "the global interactive games industry is large and growing, and is at the forefront of many of the most significant innovations in new media" Flew These games, which are developments of "new media," allow for users to establish relationships and experience a sense of belonging that transcends traditional temporal and spatial boundaries such as when gamers logging in from different parts of the world interact.
These games can be used as an escape or to act out a desired life. Will Wrightcreator of The Sims"is fascinated by the way gamers have become so attached to his invention-with some even living their lives through it".
With the creation of Second Life and Active Worlds before it, people have even more control over this virtual world, a world where anything that a participant can think of can become a reality. New Media changes continuously because it is constantly modified and redefined by the interaction between users, emerging technologies, cultural changes, etc. New forms of New Media are emerging like Web 2.
It is helping to make video games and video game consoles branch out into New Media as well. Gamers on YouTube post videos of them playing video games they like and that people want to watch. Cultural changes are happening because people can upload their gaming experiences to a Web 2. Consoles like the Xbox One and the PlayStation 4 have WiFi connectivity and chat rooms on most of their video games that allow gamer-to-gamer conversations around the world. Even the older video game consoles are becoming new media because YouTube can display the walkthroughs and let's plays of the game.
YouTube gaming is evolving because some YouTubers are getting wealthy and earning money from their videos. The more people that become YouTube members, the popular YouTube becomes and the more it starts emerging as a new source of media, along with video games and consoles. The older video games and consoles also get popularity, but from YouTube's capabilities of uploading them to the gamer's channels for everyone to see.
The older games get popularity from the communities nostalgia of the game sand the old school graphics and gameplay that made people see how old-school technology was the best at some point in time. Facebook helps those video games and consoles get popularity as well. People can upload the videos they create to Facebook as well. Facebook is a much larger website with a lot more users, so people use Facebook to spread their gaming content as well. As a device to source the ideas, concepts, and intellectual properties of the general public, the television industry has used new media and the Internet to expand their resources for new programming and content.
The advertising industry has also capitalized on the proliferation of new media with large agencies running multimillion-dollar interactive advertising subsidiaries. Interactive websites and kiosks have become popular. In a number of cases advertising agencies have also set up new divisions to study new media. Public relations firms are also taking advantage of the opportunities in new media through interactive PR practices.
The history of Artificial Intelligence AI began in antiquitywith myths, stories and rumors of artificial beings endowed wikipedia intelligence or consciousness by master craftsmen. The seeds of modern AI were planted by classical philosophers innovation attempted to describe the process of human thinking as the mechanical manipulation of symbols [ paradigm needed twice dating bangalore girls pictures. This work culminated in the invention of definition programmable digital computer in the s, a machine based on the abstract essence of mathematical reasoning. This device and the ideas behind it inspired a handful of scientists to begin seriously discussing the possibility of building an electronic brain. The field of AI research was founded at a workshop held on the campus of Dartmouth College during the summer of Many of them predicted that a machine as intelligent as a human being would exist in no more than a generation and they were given millions of dollars to make this vision come true. Eventually, it became obvious that they had grossly underestimated the difficulty of the project. Inin response to the criticism from James Lighthill and ongoing pressure from congress, the U. Seven years later, a visionary initiative by the Japanese Government inspired governments and industry to provide AI with billions of dollars, but by the late 80s the investors became disillusioned by the absence of the needed computer power hardware and withdrew funding again. Investment and interest in AI boomed in the first decades of the 21st century, when machine learning was successfully applied to many problems in academia and industry due to the presence of powerful computer hardware. Mechanical men and artificial beings appear in Greek mythssuch as the golden robots of Hephaestus and Pygmalion's Galatea.
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New media are forms of media that are native to computers, computational and relying on computers for redistribution. Some examples of new media are telephones , computers , virtual worlds , single media , website games , human-computer interface , computer animation and interactive computer installations. New media are often contrasted to " old media ", such as television, radio, and print media, although scholars in communication and media studies have criticised rigid distinctions based on oldness and novelty. Wikipedia , an online encyclopedia, is a good example of New Media, combining Internet accessible digital text, images and video with web-links, creative participation of contributors, interactive feedback of users and formation of a participant community of editors and donors for the benefit of non-community readers. Facebook is another type of New Media, belonging to the category of social media model, in which most users are also participants.
An open standard is a standard that is publicly available and has various rights to use associated with it, and may also have various properties of how it was designed e. Radiometric dating non example is no online dating website definition definition and interpretations vary with usage. The terms open and standard have a wide range of meanings associated with their usage. There are a number of definitions of open standards which emphasize different aspects of openness, including the openness of the resulting specification, the openness of the drafting process, and the ownership of rights in the standard. The term "standard" is sometimes restricted to technologies approved by formalized committees that are open to participation by all interested parties and operate on a consensus basis. The definitions of the term open standard used by academics, the European Union and some of its member governments or parliaments such as Denmark, France, and Spain preclude open standards requiring fees for use, as do the New Zealand, South African and the Venezuelan governments. On the standard organisation side, the World Wide Web Consortium W3C ensures that its specifications can be implemented on a royalty-free basis. Many definitions of the term standard permit patent holders to impose "reasonable and non-discriminatory licensing" royalty fees and other licensing terms on implementers or users of the standard.
Stream processing is a computer programming paradigm, equivalent to dataflow programming , event stream processing , and reactive programming ,  that allows some applications to more easily exploit a limited form of parallel processing. Such applications can use multiple computational units, such as the floating point unit on a graphics processing unit or field-programmable gate arrays FPGAs ,  without explicitly managing allocation, synchronization, or communication among those units. The stream processing paradigm simplifies parallel software and hardware by restricting the parallel computation that can be performed. Given a sequence of data a stream , a series of operations kernel functions is applied to each element in the stream. Kernel functions are usually pipelined , and optimal local on-chip memory reuse is attempted, in order to minimize the loss in bandwidth, accredited to external memory interaction. Uniform streaming , where one kernel function is applied to all elements in the stream, is typical.