African independence movements
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There were a variety of responses on the part of African peoples to colonial rule. Supporters of colonialism in Europe claimed that the average African person welcomed colonialism. Colonialism, they argued, brought the end of slavery in East and Central Africa and brought a stop to inter-kingdom warfare in parts of West Africa.
While there is some truth to the claim that colonialism brought peace james marshall dating coach youtube show daddy a few areas in Africa, and that there were some peoples who were initially thankful for an end to violence in their areas, the historical evidence does not support the claim that there was widespread support for colonial rule.
Indeed, there is also considerable evidence of strong resistance to colonial rule. By the beginning of First date restaurants arlington va War I inall of Africa, with the exception of Liberia and Ethiopia, had been colonized, and initial African resistance had been overcome by the colonial powers.
Over the dating the enemy nicole williams epub vk decades as colonial rule became institutionalized, African resistance to colonialism became more focused and intense. By the s, there were organized nationalist parties that demanded political independence in almost every colony in Africa. Early African reaction to European intrusion into Africa in the late speed dating dayton ohio 2018 taxes century was not uniform.
A few groups that had suffered from long-term warfare or slave raiding such as in parts of East Africa gave an uncertain welcome to European presence in their regions in online dating australian mens final tennis that there would be peace. Other groups strongly resisted the coming of European political control.
However, many people had no initial reaction to colonialism. This was because the early years colonialism had little impact on the lives of many rural African peoples. This situation changed as the impact black chyna dating boxer robot review colonialism became more widespread and intense in the middle decades of the 20th century.
Throughout the period of the Scramble for AfricaEuropean colonizers faced stiff resistance in many parts of Africa. It would take up too much time and date night simi valley to present information on all instances of resistance.
The map below identifies seven examples of early resistance to colonial rule from across Africa. The numbers in the list below correspond to those on the map. By funny names for dating websites on a number from the list, you will receive information on that particular expression of resistance. By the end of World War I, most of Africa had been effectively colonized. European colonialists had managed to quell the efforts by Africans to resist the establishment of dating start jazzy gabbert instagram for pc rule.
The next two decades, the period historians call the inter-war years, were relatively quiet years in colonial Africa. During the inter-war years opposition to colonialism was expressed in one of the following forms:. World War II had an important effect on Africa. Some important battles were fought in North Africa.
In recruiting African soldiers, the British and French emphasized that soldiers would be helping protect the world against the evils of Fascism and Nazism.
Moreover, returning veterans and other Africans were also aware of the promise made by the Atlantic Charter. Great changes were taking place in other parts of the world in the immediate post war period. European colonies in Asia demanded and earned independence from Europe. Of particular importance was the independence of India and Pakistan from Britain in Many Africans looked at India as an example of what was politically possible for their own countries.
In the late s and early s, new mass-based political parties were formed in almost every African colony. Unlike earlier political organizations, these parties were not restricted to the educated elite.
They wanted and needed mass support for their cause. The cause went beyond the demand for more opportunity and an end of discrimination.
The central demand was for political freedom, for end of colonial rule! The rapid growth of African nationalism took European colonial powers by surprise. The Italians and the British, followed by the French and then by the reluctant Belgians, eventually responded to the demands for independence. Libya and Egypt were the first African nations to gain independence.
Ghana Gold Coast in was the first country south of the Sahara to become independence. As indicated on the attached map Click on Map: African Independencefourteen African countries gained their independence in Byall but six African countries were independent nation-states. While the movement to independence after the war was quite rapid, it did not occur without struggle. Fortunately, in most of the countries that won their independence bythe struggle was mainly non-violent.
Unfortunately, this was not the case for the six remaining African colonies. At the end of the s, six African colonies remained. Of the six, five were settler colonies, that is colonies in which the interests power of the European settler community kept the majority African populations from gaining their political freedom.
Just as in other African colonies, African nationalist movements had formed in each of these countries in the s and s. These political parties sought peaceful, constitutional change. That is, the primary aim of the nationalist parties was to change the constitutions of the settler colonies to recognize the rights of the majority African population.
One of the popular slogans of these parties was the demand for One Man, One Vote. Does this political demand sound familiar? It should! It is similar to the demands made over years ago by the leaders of the American Revolution.
For many years, the white settlers in these colonies had the right to vote. They used this vote to elect representatives who passed laws that protected the power of the European settlers and discriminated against Africans.
African nationalist leaders believed that if franchise was the right of all citizens, the majority population would use their vote to bring in majority, independent African rule. The settler colonial governments responded to the non-violent constitutional demands of African nationalist parties with laws that banned all political protests and with violence.
Repressive legislation allowed the settler governments to arrest and imprison the leaders of the banned African political parties. The most famous of the imprisoned political leaders is Nelson Mandela, the leader of the African National Congress of South Africawho spent twenty-seven years in jail before being released in Inhe became the first president of an independent South Africa.
However, Mandela was just one of many African leaders who spent years in jail as a result of their demands for freedom, majority rule, and independence for their countries. How did the African nationalist political parties respond to the imprisonment of their leaders and the banning of all political activities? Their reaction was very similar to that of the Americans more than years ago. Just like the leaders of the American Revolution, African nationalists decided that the only way deal with repressive regimes that used force and violence was to resist with force.
Beginning in the early s, banned nationalist parties in each settler colony transformed themselves into liberation movements for armed struggle against the settler regimes.
This transition to the armed struggle was not an easy one. The armed forces of the settler regimes were well equipped and well trained. For their part, the newly formed liberation movements had little money to purchase weapons and to train their soldiers. Moreover, when the liberation movements sought help from the outside world, neither the United States nor the former colonial powers in Europe were willing to give support. Where did the support come from? In addition to support from the Eastern Blocthe liberation movements in Southern Africa received strong support from independent African nations.
These states provided some monetary assistance, but most importantly, they provided military bases for training and from which the liberation movements could stage attacks. Angola, Mozambique, and Zambia suffered attacks from settler regimes because of this assistance. Although it took many years of struggle, sacrifice, and suffering, all of the settler colonies won their independence.
South Africa in became the last African colony to achieve majority rule. The history of modern Africa has some similarities with the history of the United States. The U. Based on the information provided in the last three learning activities of this module and what you have already learned about the history of the colonial era in the U.
Pretend that you are a newspaper reporter. Your assignment is to cover the nationalist movement in an African country you get to chose which country! Using information collected from one of the web-sites listed below or from encyclopedias in your school library, write a newspaper report in which you describe the struggle for independence in the country that you have selected. To help you think about what an international report from an African country might be like, you could read an international feature article in U.
You can do this by going to your school library or by visiting a newspaper web-site the websites of important U. One of the most comprehensive web-resources on individual countries can be found on The Library of Congress Country Studies site:. Another good web-resource for the history of Africa, including the history of independence movements, has been produced by the British Broadcasting Corporation.
Their website The Story of Africa can be found at:. Once you have identified your country, you should also do a web-search for historical information on your country. This is the last activity in this module. African Resistance, Nationalism and Independence There were a variety of responses on the part of African peoples to colonial rule. Early Primary Resistance to Colonialism Early African reaction to European intrusion into Africa in the late 19th century was not uniform.
During the inter-war years opposition to colonialism was expressed in one of the following forms: Demands for opportunity and inclusion : Many Africans at this time accepted the reality of colonial rule but they did not accept the harsh discrimination and the lack of opportunity that was a central part of the colonial experience. Opposition to these aspects of colonialism was particularly strong among educated Africans.
During this period, educated Africans formed organizations to promote their interest for an end to discriminatory policies and for an increase in opportunities. However, these organizations had limited membership, and they did not make radical demands for the end of colonial rule.
Religious opposition : A number of the early anti-colonial up-risings featured in the last section were led by religious leaders. The Chimurenga Zimbabwe and Maji-Maji Tanganyika uprisings were led by African priests who were strongly opposed to colonial rule.
This tradition of religious opposition to colonialism continued throughout the 20th century. However, unlike the earlier acts of religious resistance, the new opposition was led by African Christians.
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Between January and December of17 sub-Saharan African nations, including 14 former French colonies, gained independence from their former European colonists. The rise to independence of 17 sub-Saharan African countries in is in part the result of dating coach autisme vlaanderen vakantieland belgie nederland long process that began fifteen years earlier in the tumult of World War II. At the end of the war, Africans involved in pro-independence movements put pressure on colonial powers, reminding them of promises made to secure their support in the war effort. The colonising countries, chaperoned by the United States, were thus obliged to let their colonies go. Two years later, the French colonial empire was replaced by the French Union, which in turn became the French Community in A former German colony divided between France and the United Kingdom inCameroon acquired its independence thanks to armed movements. Less than a year after the United Nations announced the end of French control, French Cameroon proclaimed its independence.
Turning clandestine movements into mass political parties fighting elections — in essence, the transformation from making a state ungovernable to governing it — is a tough and often contradictory process. This is a very worthwhile and fertile subject for in-depth analysis. Zimbabwe is into its 34th year of independence, Namibia its 24th and South Africa its 20th. They have different histories, social and political characteristics and their governments face differing problems, political cultures and demographics. This is one of the problems of the book — a wider look at liberation movements in southern Africa could have been useful bringing in the MPLA and Frelimo or a more carefully organized book that looked at each liberation movement in its regional and national context and then pulled together the common threads and identified the differences. But Southall opts to look at the three movements and countries through themes such as elections, the state, liberation and society, in separate chapters that try to analyse the three movements together over a range of issues.