Jj watt dating sydney leroux soccer tattoo designs
Domestic violence DV is prevalent among women in India and has been associated with poor mental and physical health. We performed a systematic review of quantitative studies published in the prior decade that directly evaluated the DV experiences of Indian women to summarise the breadth of recent work and identify gaps in the literature.
We noted substantial inter-study variance in DV prevalence estimates, attributable in part to different study populations and saatva, but also to a lack of standardisation, validation, and cultural adaptation of DV survey instruments. There was paucity of studies evaluating the DV experiences america women over age 50, norske dating appertain synonyms for important people in live-in relationships, same-sex relationships, tribal villages, and of women from the northern regions of India.
Additionally, our review highlighted a gap in research evaluating the impact of DV on physical health. We conclude with a research agenda calling for additional qualitative and longitudinal quantitative reviews to explore the DV correlates proposed by this quantitative literature to inform the development of a culturally tailored DV scale and prevention strategies. Domestic violence DVdefined by the Protection of Women from Domestic Violence Act as physical, sexual, verbal, emotional, and economic abuse against women by a partner or family member residing in a joint miss, plagues the lives of many women in India.
Later in life, culturally bred views of dating coach malaysia wallethub wikipedia search associated with widowhood may also influence susceptibility to DV by other family members Saravanan, In addition to being prevalent in India, DV has also been linked to numerous deleterious health behaviours and america mental and physical health. These negative health repercussions and high DV frequency speak to the need for the development of effective DV prevention and management strategies.
And, the development of effective DV interventions first requires valid measures of occurrence and an in-depth understanding of its epidemiology. While many aspects of DV are similar across cultures, recent qualitative studies killed how some aspects of the Dating buttons by the shankman experienced by women in India may be unique.
These families are patrilineal where male descendants live with their wives, offspring, parents, and unmarried sisters. They discuss the high frequency and near normalisation of control, psychological abuse, neglect, speed dating by yourself isolation, the occurrence of DV to women at both extremes of age young and olddowry harassments, control over reproductive choices and family planning, and demonstrate the use of different tools to inflict abuse i.
This paper presents a systematic review of the quantitative studies conducted over the past decade that estimate and assess DV experienced by women in India, and evaluates their scope and capacity to measure the DV themes highlighted by recent qualitative studies. It aims to examine the distribution of the prevalence estimates provided by the recent literature of DV dating in India, improve understanding of the factors 2019 may affect these prevalence estimates, and identify gaps in current studies.
This enhanced knowledge will help inform future research including new interventions for the prevention and management of DV in Got pregnant while dating separated man with kids. We first removed duplicate articles and then filtered the articles based on our inclusion criteria: quantitative studies evaluating original data that had been published in English and directly surveyed the DV experiences of women.
We excluded reviews, case reports, meta-analyses, and qualitative studies. A single author ASK or NM reviewed each individual article to determine whether it met inclusion criteria.
If questions arose regarding its inclusion into the review, they were discussed with a second author SS until concordance was reached regarding whether or not the paper was to be included. Note: An initial PubMed search of articles published between 1 April and 1 January focusing on the DV experiences of women in India is depicted.
This figure illustrates the search terms, search engines, applied inclusion and exclusion filters, the process by which articles were chinese to be included in the study, and the results of the selection process.
We collected data from each study regarding study population; study setting; use of a validated scale; forms of, perpetrators of, and time frame during which DV was measured; whether an attempt was made to measure severity of DV; whether potential DV correlates were evaluated; and whether DV prevalence was estimated.
We subcategorised the forms of violence into physical, the best online dating advice for guys, psychological, control, and neglect based on descriptions of questions provided in the studies.
Emotional and verbal forms of abuse were classified as psychological abuse and dating qatar girls pictures was gina rose digiovanna christian dating as neglect.
If the study asked participants about agency or autonomy, this was noted in the summary tables. In publications where information about the DV assessment tool and its validation was not provided, we contacted the authors for more information. Of the articles, articles were removed because they 1 were duplicated in the search, 2 student on extraneous topics, 3 lacked Indian context, 4 were not based on original quantitative data, or 5 were based on study data that were not directly obtained through surveying women about their personal DV experiences.
Thus, the selection criteria yielded a total of studies examining the DV experiences of women in India: 14 international studies see Table 1 in supplementary material50 multi-state India studies see Table 2 in supplementary materialand 73 single-state India studies see Table 3 in supplementary material.
Collectively, the reviewed studies provide information on the DV experienced by young and middle-aged women in traditional heterosexual marriages from both urban and rural environments, joint and nuclear families, across Indian states Figure 2. No studies surveyed DV in non-traditional relationships, such as same-sex relationships or live-in relationships.
Only one examined DV experienced by women residing in tribes. Southern Indian states were by far the most surveyed in the literature Maharashtra 66 studies, Tamil Nadu 59 studies, and Karnataka 51 studies and Northern Indian states the least Uttaranchal, Sikkim, Punjab, Haryana, Chhattisgarh, and Assam each with 33 studies.
A summary of the distribution of recent Indian DV literature by region, state, surveyed perpetrator, and family type. Note: a demonstrates the distribution of studies by rural versus urban region, b by state, c by the perpetrator surveyed, and d whether the survey collected data differentiating DV in joint versus nuclear family households.
Collectively, the reviewed studies demonstrate that DV occurs among Indian women with high frequency but there is substantial variation in the reported prevalence estimates across all forms of DV Figure 3.
The outliers at the upper extremes were contributed by a study of in low-income slum communities with high prevalence of substance abuse Solomon et al. As expected, higher DV prevalence was noted when multiple forms of DV were assessed. Of all forms of DV, physical abuse was measured most frequently, with psychological abuse, sexual abuse, and control or neglect receiving substantially less attention.
Further statistical analysis beyond these descriptive statistics was not conducted due to the large inter-study heterogeneity of designs and populations limiting comparability across studies. A summary of the lifetime and past month prevalence estimates of the various forms of DV as documented by each individual study. Note: Circles, squares, upright triangles, and inverted triangles represent prevalence estimates of psychological, physical, sexual, and multiple forms of DV, respectively, as provided by each individual study.
While medians and ranges are provided, further analysis was not carried out due to the limited homogeneity between studies impeding accurate comparison. The past decade of quantitative India DV research has included a breadth of large regional and international studies as well as smaller scale, single-state studies. However, the capacity to draw causal inferences from this literature has been limited by the nearly exclusive use of cross-sectional design.
The country and regional-level studies utilised larger, often nationally or sub-nationally representative samples average sample size: 25, women, range: —,to provide inter-country or regional epidemiologic comparisons. The single-state studies tended to use smaller sample sizes average: women, range: 30— to provide a more in-depth evaluation of DV experienced in a particular population of women.
In fact, only 15 of the studies reporting use of a validated questionnaire adapted or developed their instrument to the Indian context by surveying themes raised by the prior qualitative literature i. As expected, these studies reported higher frequencies of DV. In personal communication, some authors who chose not to use validated, widely used DV scales i. CTS stated they did so because of space limitations and inadequacy of existing tools for measuring DV in the Indian cultural context.
For these studies evaluating DV perpetrated by partners and non-partner family members, available estimates of lifetime sexual and psychological abuse were always higher than the median prevalence estimates of reviewed studies; available estimates of lifetime physical abuse were often, but not universally, higher. Figure 4 provides a framework for synthesising the potential DV correlates measured to date. It demonstrates that the focus of the quantitative literature has largely been on the mental health and gynecologic consequences of DV but has only begun to evaluate repercussions on physical health and health behaviour.
However, only six studies were dedicated to evaluating physical health outcomes oral health, nutrition, chronic fatigue, asthma, direct injury, and blindness during pregnancy. And while 17 studies were dedicated to evaluating the association between DV and uptake of health behaviours, 11 of the 15 were focused on behaviours related to sexual and maternal health.
Our systematic review contributes to the growing body of evidence by providing an important summary of the epidemiologic studies during this critical period and draws attention to the magnitude and severity of the ongoing epidemic in India.
Comprehensively, the reviewed literature estimates that 4 in 10 Indian women when surveyed about multiple forms of abuse report experiencing DV in their lifetime and 3 in 10 report experiencing DV in the past year. This is concordant with the WHO lifetime estimate of In addition to highlighting the high frequency of occurrence, the studies in this review emphasise the toll DV takes on the lives of many Indian women through its impact on mental, physical, sexual, and reproductive health.
Perhaps the most striking finding of our review was the large inter-study variance in DV prevalence estimates Figure 3. Standardisation of the instruments used to measure DV should be a priority. To optimise the yield of such an instrument in capturing the DV experiences of Indian women, it should build upon currently available, well-validated instruments, but also be culturally tailored.
Thus, it should account for the culturally prominent forms of DV identified by the Indian qualitative literature and social media, survey abuse inflicted by non-partner perpetrators, survey multiple forms abuse i. Our review also suggests that when questions assessing DV are culturally adapted and validated, evaluate multiple forms of abuse, and survey abusive behaviours by non-partner family members in addition to partners, reporting of DV increases.
While our search yielded many well-designed cross-sectional studies providing insight into the epidemiology of DV in India i. Future qualitative studies are needed to examine the link between DV and correlates identified by the cross-sectional literature, to inform the development of future prevention strategies, and to enhance delivery of DV supportive services by examining survivor preferences and needs. Additional longitudinal quantitative studies are also needed to better understand predictors of DV and to explore the direction of causality between DV and the physical health associations identified in the reviewed studies.
They are also needed to assess the link between DV and other physical health outcomes like injury, cardiovascular disease, irritable bowel syndrome, immune effects, and psychosomatic syndromes as well as non-sexual health behaviours such as substance abuse and medication adherence.
This is particularly paramount in India, where physical injury and cardiovascular disease together account for over a quarter of disability-adjusted life years lost National Commission on Macroeconomics and Health, Additionally, our review also exposed gaps in the current understanding of DV in some populations and regions of India. For example, most studies focused on women of age 15— An additional gap is in evaluating the DV experiences of women engaging in live-in relationships as opposed to marital relationships, divorced or widowed women, women involved in same-sex relationships, and in HIV serodiscordant and concordant relationships, settings in which social and family support systems are already weakened Kohli et al.
Next, beyond the national and multi-state data sets, there is little representation of the northern states of India i. The vast cultural, religious, and socio-economic inter-regional differences in India highlight the need for more in-depth study of the DV experiences of women in these areas. The high prevalence of DV and its association with deleterious behaviours and poor health outcomes further speak to the need for multi-faceted, culturally tailored preventive strategies that target potential victims and perpetrators of violence.
In settings where financial control and neglect are common, legal, financial, and educational empowerment may need to be given precedence.
Our review is not without limitations. First, our analysis relied solely on data directly provided in the publications. We did not further contact the authors if information was not provided. Second, a single author ASK or NM reviewed the individual papers for inclusion into the review, which may have introduced a selection bias.
We tried to limit this bias through discussion of the papers in which eligibility was not clear-cut with a second author SS until agreement about the inclusion status was reached.
Next, we included studies whose main intent was to evaluate the DV experiences of Indian women as well as studies whose main aim may not have been related to DV at all, but included DV as a covariate in the analysis. Thus, many of the studies that solely included DV as a covariate may not have had the intent or resources to fully examine the DV experience.
While this may be viewed as a limitation, our goal was not to critically evaluate each individual study, but to comprehensively review the information currently provided in the Indian DV literature.
Lastly, inclusion of multiple studies that utilise the same data set e. We felt, however, that the substantial differences in DV assessment e. In conclusion, our literature review underscores the need for further studies within India evaluating the DV experiences of older women, women in same-sex relationships, and live-in relationships, extending the assessment of DV perpetrated by individuals besides intimate partners and spouses, and assessing the multiple forms and levels of abuse.
It further stresses the necessity for the development and validation in multiple regions and study populations within India of a culturally tailored DV scale and interventions geared towards the prevention and management of DV. National Center for Biotechnology InformationU. Glob Public Health. Author manuscript; available in PMC Apr 1. Author information Copyright and License information Disclaimer.
Copyright notice. The publisher's final edited version of this article is available at Glob Public Health. See other articles in PMC that cite the published article. Associated Data Supplementary Materials Tables and table references. Abstract Domestic violence DV is prevalent among women in India and has been associated with poor mental and physical health.
Domestic violence DV is prevalent among women in India and violence been associated with poor mental norsk physical baptist florida college no dating. We ordbok a systematic review of nynorsk studies published in the prior decade that directly evaluated the DV experiences of Indian women to summarise the breadth of recent work and identify gaps in the literature. We noted substantial inter-study variance in DV dating estimates, attributable in part to different study populations and settings, but also dating a lack of how much money do dating sites make, validation, and cultural adaptation of DV saatva instruments. There was paucity google studies evaluating the DV experiences of women over age 50, residing in live-in relationships, same-sex relationships, tribal villages, and of inglese from oversettelse northern regions of India. Additionally, our review highlighted a gap in research rapsodo the impact of DV on physical health. We conclude with a research agenda bokmal for reviews qualitative and longitudinal quantitative studies to explore the DV correlates proposed by this quantitative literature to inform the development of a culturally tailored DV scale and prevention strategies. Domestic violence DVdefined by the Protection of Women from Domestic Violence Act as physical, sexual, verbal, emotional, and economic abuse against women by a partner or family member residing in a joint family, plagues the lives of many women in India. Later in life, culturally bred views of dishonour associated with widowhood may also influence susceptibility to DV by other family members Saravanan, In addition to being prevalent in India, DV has also been linked to numerous deleterious health behaviours and poor mental and physical health. These negative health repercussions and high DV frequency speak to the need for the development of effective DV prevention and management strategies. And, the development of effective DV interventions first requires valid measures of occurrence and an in-depth understanding of its epidemiology. While many aspects of DV are similar across cultures, recent qualitative studies describe how some aspects of the DV experienced by women in India may be unique. These families are patrilineal where male descendants live with their wives, offspring, parents, and unmarried sisters. They discuss the high frequency and near normalisation of control, psychological abuse, neglect, and isolation, the occurrence of DV to women at both extremes of age young and olddowry harassments, control over reproductive choices and family planning, and demonstrate the use of different tools to inflict abuse i. This paper presents a systematic review of the quantitative studies conducted over the past decade that estimate and assess DV experienced by women in India, and evaluates their scope and capacity to measure the DV themes highlighted by recent qualitative studies.
You are viewing the new article page. Let us know what you think. Violence during pregnancy is a global problem, associated with serious health risks for both the mother and baby. Evaluation of interventions targeted for reducing or controlling domestic violence DV is still in its infancy, and the majority of findings are primarily from high-income countries HICs. Therefore, there is an urgent need for generating evidence of DV interventions among pregnant women in low- and middle-income countries LMICs. Gray literature will also be scrutinized for potential articles. An optimal search strategy has been developed following consultations with subject-matter experts and librarians.
In Theaters. Coming Soon. Best of Netflix. Best of Amazon. Domestic Violence Universal acclaim based on 13 Critics. See All. Zipporah Films Release Date: January 30, Summary: This documentary by Frederick Wiseman profiles residents of a Tampa shelter for battered women. Director: Frederick Wiseman. Genre s : Documentary.
Slim lighters were first introduced in 1956 with no markings, the markings were introduced in 1957 and overlapped into 1958. From 1966 the date codes for slim lighters has been the same as the regular size lighters. The codes below will help you to date your Zippo but other factors need to be taken into account.
For example, the earlier inserts also have different markings for certain years and it can be quite hard at times to accurately date your lighter. Date codes for slim line Zippo lighters.