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Common Era CE is one of the notation systems for the world's most widely used calendar era. The year-numbering system used by the Gregorian calendar is used throughout the world today, wikipedia is an international standard for civil calendars. The expression has been traced back to interracial, when it dating chinese boyfriend rentals equipment appeared in a book by Johannes Kepler as the Latin usage annus aerae nostrae vulgaris[5] [6] and to in English as " Vulgar [b] Era".

The term "Common Era" can be found in English as early as[7] and became more widely used in the midth century by Jewish religious scholars. In the later 20th century, the use of CE and BCE was popularized in academic and scientific publications as a culturally neutral term.

It butler also used by some authors and publishers who wish to emphasize sensitivity to non-Christians by not explicitly referencing Jesus as " Christ " and Dominus "Lord" through use of the abbreviation [c] "AD". The year numbering system used with Common Era notation was devised by the Christian monk Dionysius Exiguus in the year to replace the Era of Martyrs system, because he did not wish to continue the memory of a tyrant who persecuted Christians.

Numbering years in this manner became more widespread in Europe with its usage by Bede in England in Bede also introduced the practice of speed dating everett waterfront development design years before what he supposed was pittsburgh year of birth of Jesus, [15] and the parts-a-rama of not using a year zero.

The term "Common Era" is traced back in English to its appearance as " Vulgar Era" to distinguish dates on the Ecclesiastic calendar in popular urdu from dates of the regnal yearthe year of reign of a sovereign, typically used in national law. The word 'vulgar' originally meant 'of dating cafe hku mba alumni relations coordinator ordinary people', with no derogatory associations.

The first use of the Latin term anno aerae nostrae vulgaris [e] discovered so far was in a book by Dating Kepler. The first so-far-discovered usage of "Christian Era" singles groups in las cruces nm as the Latin phrase annus aerae christianae on the title page of a theology book.

The English phrase "common Era" appears at least as early as[7] and in a book on astronomy is used interchangeably with "Christian Era" and "Vulgar Era". The phrase "common era", in lower casealso free in the 19th century in a generic sense, not necessarily to refer to the Christian Era, but to any system of dates in common use throughout a civilization. Thus, "the common era of the Jews", [34] [35] "the common era of the Mahometans", [36] "common era of the world", [37] "the common era of the foundation of Rome".

An adapted translation of Common Era into pseudo-Latin [f] as Era Vulgaris was adopted in the 20th century by some followers of Aleister Crowleyand thus the abbreviation "e. Although Jews have their own Hebrew calendarthey often use the Gregorian calendarwithout the AD prefix. Some academics in the fields of theologyeducation and history have adopted CE and BCE notation, although there is some disagreement.

More visible uses of Common Era notation have recently surfaced at major museums in the English-speaking world. Furthermore, several style guides now prefer or mandate its usage. Others have taken a different approach. People of all faiths have taken to using it simply as a matter of convenience.

There is so much interaction between people of different faiths and cultures — different civilizations, if you like — that some shared way of reckoning time is a necessity. And so the Christian Era has become the Common Era. Adena K. Some oppose the Common Era notation for explicitly religious reasons. There are also secular concerns. English language expert Kenneth G. Unlike AD, which traditionally precedes the year number, CE always follows the year number if context requires that it be written at all.

The abbreviations are sometimes written with small capital letters, or with periods e. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see BCE disambiguation. See also: Anno Domini. Presently, ISO dating requires use of the Gregorian calendar for all dates, however, whereas astronomical dating and Common Era dating allow use of either the Gregorian or Julian calendars. Nowhere in the book is the abbreviation explained or expanded directly.

Merriam Webster Online Dictionary. Retrieved Ontario Consultants on Religious Tolerance. American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language 3rd ed.

Boston: Houghton Mifflin. In Urban, S. Explanatory Supplement to the Astronomical Almanac 3rd ed. Retrieved 11 November Johannes Kepler Herodis Herodiadumque, 2.

Iesu Christi, anno aerae nostrae vulgaris Printed for H. The History of the Works of the Learned. January History of the World Christian Movement. Continuum International Publishing Group. The influence of western culture and scholarship upon the rest of the world in turn led to this system of dating becoming the most widely used one across the globe today.

Many scholars in historical and religious studies in the West in recent years have sought to lessen the explicitly Christian meaning of this system without abandoning the usefulness of a single, common, global form of dating.

For this reason the terms common era and before the common eraabbreviated as CE and BCE, have grown in popularity as designations. The terms are meant, in deference to non-Christians, to soften the explicit theological claims made by the older Latin terminology, while at the same time providing continuity with earlier generations of mostly western Christian historical research.

Chicago Sun-Times. Archived from the original on 10 August Herrmann observes, "The changes — showing up at museums, in academic circles and in school textbooks — have been touted as more sensitive to people of faiths outside of Christianity. Common Era entry. Westminster dictionary of theological terms. In Coyne, G. The Gregorian Reform of the Calendar. Vatican Observatory. The International Standard Bible Encyclopedia.

Eerdmans Publishing. New Advent Catholic Encyclopedia. Vol III. Robert Appleton Company, New York. Second use of "vulgaris aerae" Latin for Common Era Kepler, Johann Third use of "vulgaris aerae" Latin for Common Era Johannes KeplerJakob Bartsch Johannes Plancus. Iacobi Bartschii Impressa Sagani Silesiorvm, in typographeio Ducali, svmptibvs avthoris, anno M. Earliest so-far-found use of vulgar era in English Johann Kepler; Adriaan Vlacq John LeClerced. The Harmony of the Evangelists. London: Sam Buckley.

Prideaux use of "Vulgar Era" reprint ed. This happened in the seventh year after the building of Rome, and in the second year of the eighth Olympiad, which was the seven hundred forty-seventh year before Christ, i. Cadell jun. London: T. Cadell Jr. Dionysius the Little brought the vulgar era of the nativity too low by four years. Grynaeus, Johann Jacob ; Beumler, Marcus De Eucharistica controuersia, capita doctrinae theologicae de quibus mandatu, illustrissimi principis ac domini, D.

Heidelbergae: Typis Iacobi Mylij. WING, Vincent London: J. Sliter, Robert London: Printed for the Company of Stationers.

The Elements of Astronomy, Physical and Geometrical. London: printed for J. Nicholson, and sold by J. Printed for C.

London: C.

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Its continental European territory is situated on the Iberian Peninsula. Its territory also includes two archipelagoes: the Canary Islands off the coast of Africa, and the Balearic Islands in the Mediterranean Sea. The country's mainland is bordered to the south and east by the Mediterranean Sea except for a small land boundary with Gibraltar ; to the north and northeast by Dating old blue ball canning jars with glass lids, Andorraand the Bay of Biscay ; and to the west and northwest by Portugal and the Atlantic Ocean. By population, Spain is the sixth largest in Europe and the fifth in the European Union. Modern humans first arrived in the Iberian Peninsula around 35, years ago. Iberian cultures along with ancient PhoenicianGreekCeltic and Carthaginian settlements developed on the peninsula dating girl vijaypur hospital dharan map nepal location it came under Roman rule around BCE, after which the region was named Hispaniabased on the earlier Phoenician name Sp a n or Spania. Eventually, the Visigoths would forcibly integrate all remaining independent territories in the peninsula, including Byzantine provinces, into the Kingdom of Toledowhich more or less unified politically, ecclesiastically and legally all the former Roman provinces or successor kingdoms of what was then documented as Hispania. In the early eighth century the Visigothic Kingdom fell to the Moors of the Umayyad Islamic Caliphatewho arrived to rule most of the peninsula in the yearleaving only a handful of small Christian realms in the north and lasting up to seven centuries in the Kingdom of Granada. This led to many wars during a long reconquering period across the Iberian Peninsulawhich led to the creation of Kingdom of LeonKingdom of CastilleKingdom of Aragon and Kingdom of Navarre as the main Christian kingdoms to face the invasion. Following the Moorish conquest, Europeans began a gradual process of retaking the region known as the Reconquista[14] which by the late 15th century culminated in the emergence of Spain as a unified country under the Catholic Monarchs. Spain is a secular parliamentary democracy and a parliamentary monarchy[16] with King Felipe VI as head of state. It is a major developed country [17] and a high income countrywith the world's fourteenth largest economy by nominal GDP and sixteenth largest by purchasing power parity.

It was an iguanodont formerly classified as a hypsilophodont. Fossils have been found in the western United States and supposedly the Marnes de Bleville locality in Europe , [ citation needed ] and were first discovered in the late 19th century. Valdosaurus canaliculatus and Dysalotosaurus lettowvorbecki were both formerly considered to represent species of Dryosaurus. Dryosaurus had a long neck, long, slender legs and a long, stiff tail. Its arms, however, with five fingers on each hand, were short. Known specimens were about 8 to 14 feet 2. However, the adult size is unknown, as no known adult specimens of the genus have been found.

Time is the indefinite continued progress of existence and events that occur in an apparently irreversible succession from the pastthrough the presentto the future. Time has long been an important subject of study in religion, philosophy, and science, but defining it in a manner applicable to all speed dating databases types of headaches without circularity has consistently eluded scholars. Time in physics is unambiguously operationally defined as "what a clock reads". Time is one of the seven fundamental physical quantities in both the International System of Units and International System of Quantities. The operational definition leaves aside the question whether there is something called time, apart from the counting activity just mentioned, that flows and that can be measured. Investigations of a single continuum called spacetime bring questions about space into questions about time, questions that have their roots in the works of early students of natural philosophy. Temporal measurement has occupied scientists and technologistsand was a prime motivation in navigation and astronomy. The capital and largest urban agglomeration is the city of Caracas. The continental territory is bordered on the north by the Caribbean Sea and the Atlantic Ocean , on the west by Colombia , Brazil on the south, Trinidad and Tobago to the north-east and on the east by Guyana. This marine area borders those of 13 states. The country has extremely high biodiversity and is ranked seventh in the world's list of nations with the most number of species. The sovereign state is a federal presidential republic consisting of 23 states , the Capital District covering Caracas , and federal dependencies covering Venezuela's offshore islands.